Heavy breathing on the line: The wheel of the mandala

[dots connected by Lynn C. Rees]

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What did Lucius Aemilius Paullus know and when did he know it?

My teacher says:

  1. peace (sandhi)
  2. war (vigraha)
  3. observance of neutrality (ásana)
  4. marching (yána)
  5. alliance (samsraya)
  6. making peace with one and waging war with another

These are the six forms of state-policy.

But Vátavyádhi holds that there are only two forms of policy:

  1. peace 
  2. war

Inasmuch as the six forms result from these two primary forms of policy.

While Kautilya holds that as their respective conditions differ, the forms of policy are six.

Of these:

  1. agreement with pledges is peace
  2. offensive operation is war
  3. indifference is neutrality
  4. making preparations is marching
  5. seeking the protection of another is alliance
  6. making peace with one and waging war with another, is termed a double policy (dvaidhíbháva). 

 

These are the six forms.

Whoever:

  1. is inferior to another shall make peace with him
  2. is superior in power shall wage war
  3. thinks “no enemy can hurt me, nor am I strong enough to destroy my enemy,” shall observe neutrality
  4. is possessed of necessary means shall march against his enemy
  5. is devoid of necessary strength to defend himself shall seek the protection of another
  6. thinks that help is necessary to work out an end shall make peace with one and wage war with another.

 

Such is the aspect of the six forms of policy.

Of these, a wise king shall observe that form of policy which, in his opinion, enables him to build forts, to construct buildings and commercial roads, to open new plantations and villages, to exploit mines and timber and elephant forests, and at the same time to harass similar works of his enemy.

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